Source: Educación 2020
Segregation is when those who belong to a particular group (socioeconomic status, race, sex, religion, physical or intellectual capacity) do not mix with others different from them.
Chile is a very segregated country, that unfortunately replicates and deepens within schools, where the rich study with rich, and poor with poor, without mixing with each other or sharing the same education experience.
According to figures published in 2011, Chile is the country of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) with the highest socio-economic segregation at school level.
It is found that when the most vulnerable children in the classroom share with others of a higher cultural capital (children from households with a greater incentive for reading, with parents with higher education, etc..), Their learning improves. This phenomenon, called “peer effect“, is largely canceled in schools with high segregation.
An essential part of education is that children and young people know other realities, as a country built on diversity, so it is not known “different realities”, but they know “reality.”
Subsidized private schools that charge a copayment for parents deepen school segregation and separating children by ability to pay their parents.
According to education experts “shared financing aggravates the high social segregation of Chilean education, limits the choice of families (associating them with their ability to pay), and reinforces the selective and inclusive school communities. In return, has not shown significant positive effects on improving the quality and educational equity a priority objective of educational policy. ”
Another presentation of the Academic Center for Advanced Research in Education at the University of Chile, Cristian Bellei, the very high levels of school segregation in Chile “are not accidental. According to available studies, segregation of the school population is greater with the presence of private institutions and the more presence of shared financing in a community “(see presentation).
Therefore, Education 2020 has proposed ending (gradually) with shared financing to the extent that it increases school funding. Only to the extent that schooling is a real right to which all children can access free Chile, can we move towards inclusive education.
It is well documented by the academic world how deeply shared funding school segregation. Here some readings of interest:
Evolution of socioeconomic segregation of students in Chile and its relation to the Shared Funding (Programme for Research in Education, University of Chile)
Shared Financing in Chile: History, Evidence and Recommendations (Public Policy Institute, UDP)
The subsidized private sector in Chile. Typologizing and perspectives on the new regulations (Gregory Elacqua and Felipe Salazar)
Bringing the schools back in: the stratification of Educational Achievement in the Chilean voucher system (and Florencia Torche Mizala Alejandra)
The Impact of school choice on segregation and public policy: Evidence from Chile (Center for Comparative Politics of Education)
The study specifies that the degree of integration of the various socioeconomic backgrounds within a school is less than 50%, whereas the OECD average is 74.8% and top ranked are Finland and Norway with 89%.
The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) names Chile the most socio-economically segregated country regarding education opportunities. The annual report shows that private schools receive the most funding from the government and these schools have the least socioeconomic integration.
Publication Date: May 3, 2012
“How do you become a good teacher?” Those of you who know me from reading my writing already know my answer. The short answer, the simple answer, the easy to understand answer. It has two parts.
First, love what you do. Love being a teacher so much that if you had the power to be anything on Earth, pilot, astronaut, doctor, dentist, taxi-driver, singer, dancer, artist, musician, anything at all, you would still choose to be a teacher. Love being a teacher, that’s number one.
Paperback: 156 pages
Publisher: CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform (May 4, 2012)
Pecha Kucha & English Language Teaching
I saw my first Pecha Kucha over three years ago. It was when I was working at Universidad Andrés Bello at Campus Casona in Santiago with the students in the English Pedagogy program. I admit I’ve been fascinated by “Pecha Kucha” ever since that first time. I remember being very impressed by the performance I watched. There were a number of reasons for this. For now, let me share with you why I find Pecha Kucha to be so impressive and fascinating as a presentation technique.
Firstly, when we speak of our first time doing something enjoyable, it’s always a good feeling. We like what we like, we know what we like, and because of that, we return often, to what we like.
As you can tell by now, I like Pecha Kucha.
Secondly, its principles are easy to understand and apply. It’s fast, it’s efficient, it’s effective, it’s collaborative, it’s visual, it’s easy to prepare, it’s fun. However, it does require practice, lots of it, to do this really well. Practice, oh what a sweet word in the ears of any EFL teacher. Students practicing what they are going to say, again and again, going over their own words, to speak about images they themselves have selected. Volumes of practice, huge quantities of practice, helping the students to achieve the eventual automaticity that is the hallmark of mastery.
Having said that, of all the principles of the Pecha Kucha, the most important principle is this: images are powerful.
Images convey meaning and emotions. In fact, the whole range of the human experience can be conveyed by images. For example, think of the images left on the walls of caves by cave men. No one needs a cave man to verbalize what you are seeing. You feel it – through your eyes – to your brain – to your emotions. It’s visual storytelling. That’s what the Pecha Kucha is, visual literacy in its purest form…
The global search for high-quality education, embedded in high-performing education systems, has taken on mythical proportions, almost resembling the alchemists’ quest to turn common metals into gold.
It is my hope that the present day search for global education, equitable and providing equality of opportunity for all, shall not cease until the “gold” we seek, has been found.
I therefore dedicate this book to all the educators, researchers, parents and students the world over, who strive to achieve this elusive goal,high-quality education for all the citizens of the world.
In this endeavour, it is my belief that the International Baccalaureate merits a closer look, based on their more than 40 year history of delivering consistently excellent results.
I add that all of the reflections and views in this book are mine alone, unless otherwise noted, and can not be attributed to my employer or any other organization I am affiliated with, past or present. For any errors or oversights, I bear the complete responsibility.
Thomas Baker is the Past-President of TESOL Chile (2010-2011). He is the Head of the English Department at Colegio Internacional SEK in Santiago, Chile.
He is the Co-Founder and Co-Organiser of EdCamp Santiago, free, participant-driven, democratic, conversation based professional development for teachers, by teachers. EdCamp Santiago 2012 was held at Universidad Mayor in Santiago.
Thomas is also a member of the Advisory Board for the International Higher Education Teaching and Learning Association (HETL), where he also serves as a reviewer and as the HETL Ambassador for Chile.
Thomas enjoys writing about a wide variety of topics. Thus far, he has written the following genres: romance, historical fiction, autobiographical, sports history/biography, and English Language Teaching. He has published a total of forty four (44) books overall.
The source and inspiration for his writing comes from his family, his wife Gabriela, and his son, Thomas Jerome Baker, Jr.